July 14, 2019

The Ten

“Now therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples, for all the earth is mine; and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.” These are the words that you shall speak to the people of Israel. — Exodus 19:5-6
Accompanying Sermon

In Retrospect

  • Identify one thing from last week’s lesson that impacted you.  
  • Read 1 Corinthians 10:6-13 to see how Paul used the grumbling Israelites as a warning.

Community Reading

Exodus 20:1–17; Galatians 3:16-29

Begin Study

God gave Abraham a promise to bless all the nations through him during a conversation. However, God gave Moses the Law under terrifying, life-threatening circumstances. This dramatic event and clear instructions leave no room for disobedience by the Israelites, and yet they prove they are no different than us by failing to live up to the Law. Thanks be to God that the Promise came to Abraham first, and that Jesus Christ fulfilled the Law for Jew and Gentile. Let us discover how this Law of God compares to the joyous Promise of God found in Jesus our King.

Review Questions

  • Read Exodus 19:3-6. What three things did God promise for their obedience?
  • Read Exodus 19:16-20. Describe in your own words what that scene must have looked like and how you would feel. Then read Exodus 20:18-21 to see how the people respond. Why do you think Moses was so brave?  
  • Review Exodus 20:1-17. Which commandment do you find is the easiest to keep? Which is the most difficult?
  • Along with the Ten Commandments, the Law includes regulations and ethics. Read each of these passages and describe a modern regulation, lawsuit, or situation that demonstrates a similar principle: Exodus 21:28-29; 22:6; 22:21; 23:4-5.
  • Considering Galatians 3:16-29, explain the relationship between the Promise to Abraham and the Mosaic Law in your own words. Who is under the Promise? Who was under the Law? What was the purpose of the Law? What role does Jesus play in the Law and the Promise?
  • The Law of God was given on Mount Sinai and the people stood in fear and trembling. Read Hebrews 12:18-24. What mountain represents the New Covenant? List all the occupants of this heavenly mountain. Compare the images of Mount Sinai and the mountain of the New Covenant.
  • Based upon the story of Exodus so far, what came first? Rescue or rules? Why do you think this is important? What does it say about the character of the rescuer and rule-maker? What does it say about your identity as a Christian?


Isn’t it such a wonderful feeling to know Jesus has fulfilled the Law on our behalf? Every time we fall short of God’s standard, we are reminded that we are children of the Promise. Does this mean that we can sin all the more? Of course not.

Take a moment in your group to declare out loud how living under the Promise of grace motivates you to love and obey God. Be specific. If you feel like you are missing this motivation, take time in prayer together asking God to reveal His grace in deeper ways and to empower this motivation toward Him, His reign, and His way of life.